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      史海鉤沉

      京劇丑角

      時間:2014-3-14 11:21:41  作者:國粹基金  來源:網絡轉載  查看:3782  評論:0
      內容摘要:         丑(中國戲曲表演主要行當)     中國戲曲表演主要行當之一。俗稱小花臉、三花臉。可分為文丑、武丑兩大支系。文丑中又有袍帶丑、方巾丑、褶子丑、茶花丑、老丑等。袍帶丑因身穿蟒袍、腰圍玉帶而得名,多演帝王將相、公卿大夫...
        
       
          丑(中國戲曲表演主要行當)
       
        中國戲曲表演主要行當之一。俗稱小花臉、三花臉。可分為文丑、武丑兩大支系。文丑中又有袍帶丑、方巾丑、褶子丑、茶花丑、老丑等。袍帶丑因身穿蟒袍、腰圍玉帶而得名,多演帝王將相、公卿大夫中的喜劇人物;方巾丑因常戴方巾得名,多扮儒生、謀士中的喜劇形象;褶子丑是川劇丑行之一支,常扮紈礌子弟、花花公子,故其他劇種又名公子丑;茶花丑為京劇丑行之一支,因穿茶衣腰包故名,多演下層人物,如酒保、樵夫等;老丑多扮心地善良、性格詼諧的老人;武丑俗稱開口跳,講究念白清脆流利,動作輕巧敏捷,著重翻跳撲跌的武功,介乎凈、丑之間的叫“付”,為昆曲行當,多演奸詐小人。
       
        丑,由宋金雜劇院本中雜班之“紐元子”省文而來,即由”紐“省作”丑”,“紐元子”之特質即為小戲中之”丑”腳。丑雖居生、旦、凈、末、丑的最后一位,實際上它的起源最古,可以追溯到春秋戰國,在先秦古籍和《史記·滑稽列傳》中就有動人的記載。他們不畏權勢,不受誘惑,以冷諷熱嘲譏刺帝王、諷諫朝政,可稱是戲劇腳色之祖。所以流傳到后世,丑在戲曲團體中的位置最高,昆劇丑行又分付丑、小丑兩個家門。
       
        昆劇重丑角,還表現在這一行當所扮演的舞臺人物,都有其獨特的表演要求和“絕活”。如付丑擅演的《西廂記·游殿》中的法聰,重白口;《宋十回·活捉》中的張文遠,重做功;《躍鯉記·蘆林》中的姜詩則長于唱。而小丑趙奇的“五毒戲”更具特色,它通過人物的特殊表演,形象地摹擬了五種有毒動物的形態。如《雁翎甲·盜甲》中時遷的表演像壁虎,《連環記·問探》中探子的表演像蜈蚣,《孽海記·下山》中小和尚的表演像蛤蟆,《六月雪·羊肚》中張母的表演像游蛇,《武十回·誘叔》中武大郎的表演像蜘蛛等等。在這些戲中,丑角不僅僅是插科打諢、滑稽逗笑,而是在幽默的表演中見功力、見人物,戲曲界就有一句稱贊丑行的諺語:“無丑不成戲”。
       


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