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      史海鉤沉

      京劇凈角

      時間:2014-3-14 11:19:00  作者:國粹基金  來源:網絡轉載  查看:3681  評論:0
      內容摘要:        凈角是京劇表演主要行當之一,俗稱花臉。以面部化妝運用圖案化的臉譜為標志,音色宏亮寬闊,演唱風格粗壯渾厚,動作大開大闔,頓挫鮮明。京劇形成以后,對凈角的表演藝術進行了磨煉和提高,扮演人物的范圍不斷擴大,藝術上更為豐富和成熟。根據凈角所...

         

          凈角是京劇表演主要行當之一,俗稱花臉。以面部化妝運用圖案化的臉譜為標志,音色宏亮寬闊,演唱風格粗壯渾厚,動作大開大闔,頓挫鮮明。京劇形成以后,對凈角的表演藝術進行了磨煉和提高,扮演人物的范圍不斷擴大,藝術上更為豐富和成熟。根據凈角所扮演的人物身份性格及其藝術、技術特點,又分大花臉、二花臉和武花臉。

       
        1分類
       
        大花臉
       
        以唱功為主。在京劇中又稱銅錘或黑頭。因為《龍鳳閣》中的徐延昭手捧御賜銅錘而得名,又因包拯須勾黑色臉譜而叫黑頭。大花臉所扮演的角色多為朝廷重臣,唱、念、做派要求雄渾、凝重。
       
        二花臉
       
        以做功為主,重身段工架,京劇又稱架子花臉,多扮演勇猛豪爽的正面人物。如《盜御馬》中的竇爾墩。抹白臉的角色如曹操也由架子花臉扮演。
       
        武花臉
       
        即武凈,以武功為主,為二花臉一支,京劇里又稱為武二花。分兩類:一類重把子工架,一類重跌撲摔打,多扮交戰雙方下手或戰敗一方,須摔“搶背”等,又叫“摔打花臉”,如《戰宛城》中典韋為武花臉,許褚為摔打花臉。
       
        京劇凈角
       
        京劇凈角
       
        2代表人物
       
        早期正凈的代表人物是何桂山,扮相雄偉,臉譜簡潔大方,嗓音渾厚峭拔。他是京昆兩門的凈角演員,他的弟子有裘桂仙、金秀山等。
       
        金少山是著名京劇演員金秀山之子。幼年隨父學藝,在繼承父親銅錘唱腔基礎上,吸收了架子花臉的唱、做,突破了兩者嚴格的分工界限。在吐字、行腔、氣口等技巧的運用方面也較一般銅錘花臉細微,形成了自己的風格。
       
        侯喜瑞八歲入科班,后又拜名凈黃潤甫為師,得其真傳。他能融合各家之長,形成自己的風格,世稱侯派,表演矯健、細膩,注重形式美,并堅守“懂劇情、懂戲理、懂戲詞”,“發于內,形于外”的原則。唱、念口勁嚴謹,字韻準確,能根據本人嗓音條件,常用炸音、沙音、立音唱法簡潔大方,講究頓挫、收放、字字真切。他武功精湛,做功身段邊式利落,層次分明,繼承了黃潤甫善用“大功架”的特點,利用長腰、立腰等彌補身材瘦小之不足。侯派臉譜細致、干凈、形象生動,自成一家。
       
        郝壽臣工架子花臉。他在二百多出戲中扮演過主要和次要角色。郝派藝術唱、念韻味渾厚,工架精美,表演渾然一體。并善于刻畫人物的性格,對架子花臉表演藝術有很多革新創造。郝壽臣還創造了魯智深的螳螂眉、和尚眼,粉紅雙頰臉譜和坦胸裸腹的扮相,突出了豪爽樸實的“花和尚”的形象。
       
        袁世海花臉
       
        袁世海花臉
       
        袁世海工架子花臉,科班出身,又得到他的老師郝壽臣傳授。他在發展念白、做工、表演和武打藝術的同時,鍛煉出一條渾厚、瓷實的嗓子,發展了架子花臉的唱工藝術。袁世海對歷史人物有精辟的見解,進行了細膩的琢磨。他善于把生活的語言提煉成藝術的語言,鮮明地表達了歷史人物特定環境中的思想感情和性格氣質。他運用富有生活氣息的唱工和念白,配合身段和表情,成功地塑造了曹操、張飛、魯智深、李逵、廉頗等眾多歷史人物的凈角藝術形象。
       
        裘盛戎是著名凈角演員,他是銅錘和架子花臉兩門抱,以銅錘為主。其父裘桂仙也是著名的花臉演員,裘盛戎從小隨父親學藝,后又入科班,他嗓音既有高昂,激越的一面,又有迂迥委婉的一面,剛柔并濟。他能結合自己的嗓音特點,從表現人物出發,在詞義、字聲和韻味方面下功夫,塑造不同人物的藝術形象,都有很強烈的藝術感染力。 裘盛戎的唱腔主要特點是“以情帶聲,以韻取勝。”在他之前京劇花臉的唱腔,主要是講究聲音洪亮,就是所謂“實大聲宏”。這種唱法,具有豪邁、樸素的特點唱腔見棱見角,古樸平直。是以聲為主、韻味居次的一種唱法。
       
        裘盛戎在長期的舞臺實踐中能博采眾長,經過不斷鉆研,創造出獨樹一幟的“裘派”唱腔。他創造的唱腔繼承了凈角傳統唱腔,雄渾豪放的風格,又融合了老生、青衣唱腔中低迥婉轉的抒情特色,形成了韻味醇厚、含蓄細膩的風格,把花臉唱腔推向了一個新的境界,幾乎是“無凈不學裘”。裘盛戎的藝術成就,為京劇事業發展,做出了很大貢獻。
       
        尚長榮花臉
       
        尚長榮花臉
       
        中國戲劇家協會主席、著名京劇演員尚長榮也是凈角演員。


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