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      史海鉤沉

      京劇旦角

      時間:2014-3-5 14:21:38  作者:國粹基金  來源:網絡轉載  查看:1363  評論:0
      內容摘要:   京劇旦行扮演各種不同年齡、性格、身份的女性角色。旦行又分為正旦、花旦、花衫、刀馬旦、 武旦、老旦等專行。     正旦     ①正旦俗稱“青衣”,因所扮演的角色常穿青色褶子而得名。主要扮演莊重的青年、中年婦女,...
         京劇旦行扮演各種不同年齡、性格、身份的女性角色。旦行又分為正旦、花旦、花衫、刀馬旦、 武旦、老旦等專行。
       
        正旦
       
        ①正旦俗稱“青衣”,因所扮演的角色常穿青色褶子而得名。主要扮演莊重的青年、中年婦女,表演特點是以唱功為主,動作幅度較小.行動比較穩重。念韻白,唱功繁重。如《三擊掌》中的王寶釧、《二進宮》中的李艷妃、《桑園會》中的羅敷女等。
       
        花旦
       
        ②花旦大多扮演青年女性。身著短衣裳,如褂子、
       
        褲子、裙子、襖;有時穿長衣裳,也繡著色彩艷麗的花樣。人物性格大都活潑開朗,動作敏捷伶俐。表演以做功、說白為主,說白主要是京白,韻白較少。如《棒打薄情郎》中的金玉奴、《烏龍院》中的閻惜嬌等。
       
        刀馬旦
       
        ③刀馬旦大都扮演擅長武藝的青壯年婦女,武打不如武旦激烈,不用“打出手”(即
       
        拋、擲、踢、接、武器的特技表演),較重唱、做和舞蹈。如《戰金山》中的梁紅玉、《穆柯寨》中的穆桂英等。
       
        武旦
       
        ④武旦扮演擅長武打、勇武的女性。表演上著重武打,特別是使用特
       
        技“打出手”。武旦與刀馬旦的區別,過去主要有二點,一是武旦踩蹺,刀馬旦不踩蹺;二是武旦有 “打出手”,刀馬旦無此技。武旦穿短衣裳,重在武功,不重唱念。如《打焦贊》中的楊排風、《武松打店》中的孫二娘等。
       
        花衫
       
        ⑤花衫是本世紀20年代以后,綜合青衣、花旦、刀馬旦的藝術特點,發展而成的新的旦角類型。在花衫
       
        形成之前,一個演員一般不能兼演青衣和花旦兩個行當。王瑤卿為了豐富旦角的表演藝術,充實藝術表現能力,他把青衣沉靜端莊的風格、花旦活潑靈巧的表演、刀馬旦的武打工架等融為一爐,創作出一種唱、念、做、打并重的旦角行當,人們把它命名為花衫(花旦和青衫的結合)。
       
        京劇四大名旦所編演的新劇目,大都屬于花衫范疇,每個新戲都力求在唱、念、做、打各方面滿足觀眾的觀賞要求,如《霸王別姬》中的虞姬、《漢明妃》中的王昭君、《鎖麟囊》中的薛湘靈、《紅樓二尤》中的尤三姐等。花衫戲中還有一種旗裝旦,穿清朝旗人的衣飾,梳旗頭,腳下穿花盆底鞋,說京白。旗裝旦所表演的人物并不限于清朝婦女,哪一個朝代的都有,加《蘇武牧羊》中的胡阿云(漢代)、《四郎探母》中的鐵鏡公主(宋代)等。
       
        老旦
       
        ⑥老旦專門扮演老年婦女角色的行當。扮相、身段、臺步都與青衣不同,主
       
        要突出老年人的特點。演唱用本噪,唱腔與老生接近,但具有女性婉轉迂回的韻味。如《楊門女將》中的佘太君、《岳母刺字》中的岳母、《鉤金龜》中的康氏等。
       
        2名家介紹
       
       
        胡喜祿
       
        胡喜祿,生于1827年,卒于1890年,他是同程長庚、余三勝同時代的著名青衣演員,他的發音用了很多的鄂音,大膽地起用鄂音來取代徽音,所以唱腔就比較柔婉,字眼上就更加清晰。他在演出里面也進行了許多革新。比如說現在的傳統劇目《玉堂春》,大部分都是胡喜祿那個時代創制的,今天的還延續下來。
       
        梅巧玲
       
        梅巧玲是梅蘭芳的祖父,他生于1842年,卒于1882年。梅巧玲主工花旦,也兼演青衣。他的扮相非常地富麗堂皇,所以當時有“胖巧玲”之稱。他的拿手戲如《盤絲洞》,《梅玉配》,都是膾炙人口的。梅巧玲先生也是京劇旦角改革的先驅者,一是他大膽地編演了很多新戲,特別是擅長演旗裝戲,如《雁門關》的蕭太后和《四郎探母》的蕭太后。他的旗裝戲在當時來說打破了青衣和花旦的界限,所以他在身段、神氣、臺步、表演等各方面都有很多的革新。
       
        時小福
       
        時小福,生于1849年,卒于1900年。他私淑胡喜祿的演出風格。但是他唱腔比較遵從徽音,比較剛直。他演的人物,大部分也是節婦烈女。比如《三娘教子》,《四郎探母》里的四夫人這一類人物。他的風格與他演的人物是相一致的。所以他是我們青衣先輩里剛直派的代表。時小福的弟子叫吳菱仙,吳菱仙的弟子是梅蘭芳。時小福、吳菱仙、梅蘭芳這是一脈相承的。
       
        余紫云
       
        余紫云是余三勝之子,余叔巖之父。(1855~1899),他是梅巧玲的弟子,既演花旦,也兼演青衣。花旦私淑梅巧玲,青衣私淑胡喜祿。余紫云的表演風格上對于后來的王瑤卿產生了很大的影響。他的代表劇目既有青衣也有花旦戲,比如《宇宙鋒》、《游龍戲鳳》、《御碑亭》、《玉堂春》、《虹霓關》等。他不僅基本功扎實,技藝精湛,而且能戲多、戲路寬,文武昆亂不擋,尤精蹺工。他演二本《虹霓關》之丫環,在“獻盤”一場,托盤疾走圓場,猶如楊柳春風,婆婆生姿,極優美。據《梨園舊話》載他“嗓音柔脆、玉潤珠圓,其唱工固臻妙境,至不專屬青衫之劇,如《戲風》之李鳳姐,《虹霓關》之丫環,姿態橫生,維妙維肖”。更為重要的是余紫云繼承了乃師梅巧玲揉花衫、青衣于一爐的優良創造,對京劇旦角表演的發展起到了承上啟下的重要作用。據《京劇二百年之歷史》載:“時小福之青衣以典雅勝,田桐秋之花旦以流利著,然紫云兼此二人之長,實為今日王瑤卿、梅蘭芳之先驅者。”紫云兼工琵琶,演《昭君出塞》一劇時,自彈自唱,琵琶鏗鏘,珠喉宛轉,清晰動人,世人稱為一絕。
       
        田際云
       
        田際云(1864~1925)中國河北梆子演員,工花旦。藝名響九霄。原籍河北高陽。12歲入涿縣雙順科班學花旦兼小生,15歲時便嶄露頭角,演出活動遍及北京、天津、上海等地。曾自建科班,培養出許多名角。于清末被選入踦平署外學。
       
        田桂鳳
       
        田桂鳳,生于1867年卒于1931年。他的表演以細膩,口齒伶俐見長,尤其擅長京白。他是著名花旦筱翠花的老師。從田桂鳳的表演風格來看,他以風流潑辣見長,而另一位花旦梅巧玲是以妖艷嫵媚突出。所以兩個花旦演員的風格是不相同的,他的代表劇目有《拾玉鐲》、《戰宛城》、《翠屏山》、《烏龍院》等等。
       
        陳德霖
       
        陳德霖,同治元年生人,清末民初青衣泰斗,其主要特色在于繼承老派青衣演唱的傳統,偏于陽剛一路,而在唱法上較前人略有變化,是近代青衣重要流派,世稱“陳派”。人稱“老夫子”。初在四喜班,后入三慶班學戲。成名后倒倉極苦,經多年苦練,至光緒八、九年時,嗓音更勝從前,至老不衰。嗓音剛勁嘹亮,腦后音純正,唱法屬陽剛一路,滿宮滿調,年逾六旬時仍嬌脆如少女,調門也絲毫不降,還是標準的正工調,直到1930年7月13日為弟子黃桂秋助演《大登殿》之代戰公主偶感傷寒于7月27日病故,在嗓音藝術青春之長久方面,比后來的各旦角流派創始人更勝一籌。


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