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      國粹動態

      京劇名家新艷秋七十高齡登臺轟動梨園界

      時間:2014-1-27 10:21:23  作者:  來源:現代快報  查看:2367  評論:0
      內容摘要:  ...
       
      新艷秋晚年的劇照
      新艷秋晚年的劇照
      上世紀80年代新艷秋與梅葆玖合影
      上世紀80年代新艷秋與梅葆玖合影
      新艷秋與兒子在一起
      新艷秋與兒子在一起
      1928年,新艷秋與楊小樓合作的舞臺照
      1928年,新艷秋與楊小樓合作的舞臺照
      京劇名家新艷秋七十高齡登臺轟動梨園界

        編者按:在雨花臺功德園,長眠著很多科學家和藝術家,他們的名字也許您并不熟悉;天文、土壤、古生物、化工、物理、水利、航天……他們的專業也似乎離我們的生活很遠。但就是這樣一群人,為我們生活的時代做出了卓越的貢獻。《發現》周刊聯合雨花臺功德園共同推出“人物”,為您介紹這些學界風云人物的傳奇故事。

        新艷秋(1911-2008):滿族,原名王玉華,藝名新艷秋,著名的京劇表演藝術家。先后拜榮蝶仙、梅蘭芳、王瑤卿為師。因酷愛程戲而專攻程派,是程硯秋私淑弟子。民國時被推為“四大坤旦”之一、“坤伶主席”。1949年后,新艷秋先后在江蘇省京劇團、江蘇省戲曲學校從事演出和教學。上世紀八九十年代,她以古稀高齡登臺演出,轟動海內外梨園界。2008年在南京去世,安葬在雨花臺功德園。

        新艷秋的舊居位于南京市長白街的一個居民小區內。晚年的新艷秋,有心愛的京戲相隨,兒孫繞膝,在這處鬧中取靜的小小兩室套里,她度過了一生中最幸福寧靜的時光。

        5年前,98歲高齡的新艷秋安然離世,家人保留了她生前的用品,房屋的陳設也未做更改。“按照我們滿族的習俗,房間要按照母親生前的樣子保留5年。”說起母親,兒子王進的眼睛有些泛紅,“母親去世之前,常常請朋友和學生來家里唱戲切磋,一周總有個一兩次。最后這兩年,她身體不行,實在唱不動了,小聚會也就取消了。”

        現代快報記者 白雁/文 本版圖片由新艷秋之子王進提供

        初入梨園

        新艷秋是京劇大師梅蘭芳的弟子,同時,她又被認為是京劇大師程硯秋的正宗傳人。梅蘭芳和程硯秋雖然都因飾演京劇旦角而聞名,但兩人藝術風格迥異,分別開創了“梅派”與“程派”京劇表演藝術。新艷秋為何與梅派、程派都有深厚的淵源?其中緣分要追溯到上世紀20年代。

        15歲迷上“程派”,女扮男裝偷師學藝

        新艷秋祖籍北京,原名叫王玉華,出生在一個沒落的旗人家庭。從9歲起,她就開始學唱戲,一開始唱的是河北梆子,后來改學京戲。

        王玉華15歲時,和拉胡琴的哥哥王子祥一起迷上了程派藝術。程硯秋只比王玉華大六七歲,但當時已經非常有名,《紅拂傳》《金鎖記》《青霜劍》都是他的拿手好戲,程派獨特的藝術風格已經初步形成。

        那時候,程硯秋常在北京的華樂園演出,每逢他演出,王玉華就和哥哥王子祥去“偷”戲。為防止被人認出趕出戲園,王玉華女扮男裝,和哥哥躲在華樂園樓上的角落里,哥哥記胡琴、唱腔的工尺譜,她則學唱、念、身段等功夫。演出結束后,王玉華和王子祥一邊往家走,一邊琢磨著剛學的戲。回到家里,接著練習當天學來的戲,直到把每個細節都琢磨清楚。

        這樣偷偷學了幾年,王玉華居然把早期程派代表劇目都學到了手。后來,她以王蘭芳的藝名登臺演出,引起不小的轟動。王玉華的演出引起了戲劇理論家齊如山的注意,他認為王玉華不管是身段還是唱腔都極像程硯秋(時名程艷秋),于是就推薦她拜程硯秋為師,并建議她將藝名改為“新艷秋”。遺憾的是,當時北京的梨園界風氣未開,旦角都是由男演員反串,程硯秋婉言謝絕了新艷秋拜師的意愿。

        經齊如山引薦拜梅蘭芳為師

        新艷秋無緣成為程硯秋的弟子,愛才心切的齊如山于是又將她介紹給梅蘭芳。梅蘭芳很欣賞這位后起之秀,但囿于當時的舊風氣,也不能貿然收下新艷秋。

        新艷秋多次登門拜見梅蘭芳,在梅蘭芳太太福芝芳的勸說下,梅蘭芳最終收下了這位女弟子。就這樣,新艷秋成了梅蘭芳的第一位女弟子。梅蘭芳向新艷秋悉心傳授了《紅線盜盒》《霸王別姬》等梅派代表作。由于家庭貧苦,自小就摸爬滾打自謀生路,新艷秋幾乎沒學過什么文化,因此對很多劇目的內容似懂非懂,在舞臺上的表現往往不能十分到位。針對她的這個弱點,梅蘭芳耐心地向她說戲,一再教導她要深刻體會劇情,牢牢掌握人物的性格。受到梅蘭芳的啟發,新艷秋開始深入探索她扮演的人物的性格,并在表演中把性格融入動作。她的表演越來越成熟了。

        雖然已經拜梅蘭芳為師,但新艷秋最喜愛的卻仍舊是程派的表演風格。她自己后來分析,之所以喜歡程派,是因為程派的主角往往是小人物,他們的悲歡離合更容易引起自己的共鳴。拜師梅蘭芳后,新艷秋一邊向梅蘭芳學習,一邊繼續私淑程硯秋。盡管新艷秋一生無緣成為程硯秋的弟子,但她卻被認為是學到了程派的精髓。

        跌宕人生

        與前輩楊小樓同臺演出,首開梨園“女禁”

        拜師梅蘭芳后的新艷秋,名氣越來越響亮,在各地演出時,常常掛頭牌。為了在表演上取得更高的成就,她又找到當時倡導革新的戲劇前輩王瑤卿,虛心求教。對這位后起之秀,梨園前輩都慷慨指點,使得她在藝術上的進步飛快。

        1928年,一個絕好的機會擺到了新艷秋眼前—一代宗師、武生泰斗楊小樓點名她合演《霸王別姬》。

        當時在中國的南方,男女同臺演出已經蔚然成風,但處在北洋統治下的北京,男女同臺仍舊被認為是大逆不道,梨園界謹慎地遵守著這一舊例。誰來破這個先例?這一年,年過五十且德高望重的武生泰斗楊小樓呈文北京市政府,要求實現男女同臺。大勢所趨,當局順水推舟批準了楊小樓的申請。

        申請批準之后,楊小樓開始組建班子,他會選誰來出演坤角呢?出人意料的是,他將目光瞄準了新秀新艷秋。楊小樓派人找到新艷秋,邀請她與自己一起登臺表演。這份突如其來的邀請,讓十八歲的新艷秋驚喜又忐忑。在師傅梅蘭芳的指導下,她苦練楊小樓的拿手戲《長坂坡》和《霸王別姬》,終于得到了楊小樓的充分認可,也得到了梨園內外的認可。

        1931年新年,楊小樓應邀赴滬演出,此行,有馬連良、茹富蕙、劉硯亭、遲月亭等已久負盛名的前輩,也有新艷秋這顆新星。他們的演出大獲成功,《申報》連續登出多篇戲評盛贊。

        上海之行,打響了新艷秋在南方的名聲,幾年后的1934年,她來南京演出,此時年僅24歲的她已是大紅大紫。

        被牽扯進張嘯林遇刺事件, “坤伶主席”無奈停演

        1930年春,天津的《北洋畫報》發起舉辦“四大坤伶皇后”的選舉,經過幾個月的緊張角逐,公布了評選結果。胡碧蘭、孟麗君、雪艷琴、章遏云當選,新艷秋位居第五。1933年歲末,胡碧蘭因故離開舞臺,新艷秋代替胡碧蘭,成為“四大坤旦之一”。后來,新艷秋又被推為“坤伶主席”,一時間紅遍大江南北。

        1937年,一樁突如其來的變故給新艷秋的演藝事業帶來沉重打擊。八一三事變后,上海淪陷,青幫頭子張嘯林很快與日本人達成協議,淪為漢奸。張嘯林脅迫各行各業與日本人“共存共榮”,大肆鎮壓抗日救亡活動。他的投敵活動,引起了國民黨當局的極大不安,一個刺殺張嘯林的計劃日漸醞釀成功。刺殺者精心布局,得知某天張嘯林要去看新艷秋的演出后,他們將刺殺地點選在了這家劇院里。這次刺殺最終未能成功,不過事后新艷秋卻被牽扯進了官司,并被日本憲兵隊關押。得知新艷秋被抓,遠在北京的家人萬分焦急,他們多方托人,找到了一位還有權勢的滿族將軍,這才將關押了一年多的新艷秋保釋出來。

        離開上海回到北京后,一則時局混亂,二則新艷秋受到的驚嚇太大,她暫時停止了演藝事業。

        向程硯秋夫人行弟子禮,了卻半生心愿

        抗戰結束后,新艷秋又組班到各地演出。1954年,新艷秋來南京演出,文化部的一位領導知道后,提出讓新艷秋留在南京,幫助發展江蘇的京劇事業。新艷秋愉快地接受了這個任務。她認為,在南京工作幾年之后,她還是會回到北京老家的。然而,誰知道,她從此就在南京安家落戶,先后在省京劇團和省戲校工作,直至退休。上世紀60年代后期,由于當時特殊的政治環境,她的事業和生活都跌入低谷。她憑借著頑強的毅力挺過了那十年。

        上世紀80年代初,70多歲的新艷秋在離開故鄉多年后重返北京。在北京,她見到了恩師梅蘭芳之子、梅派傳人梅葆玖,也見到了私淑恩師程硯秋的遺孀果素瑛。在北京,新艷秋參加了紀念程硯秋逝世25周年的演出,她以古稀高齡登臺演出,轟動海內外梨園界,并得到果素瑛的高度認可。演出結束后,新艷秋恭恭敬敬地向果素瑛行弟子禮,了卻了半個多世紀的心愿。



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